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Compiled by: Aaron Hai

Monday, April 19, 2010

Philosophy/What Aristotle wrote to Alexander {Hebrew/English}:

Aristotle: Born 384 -322 B.C.
Birth: Chalcidice, Greece. Death: Chalcis, Greece. הרב [רמב"ם] במורה נבוכים חלק א' פרק ע"א אומר: החכמות היו בראשונה בישראל
אך בשלוט האומות עלינו באו לידם ואנחנו בלמדנו דבר מהם נראה היות ראשיתו מאתם ותהי להפך
Aristotle was described by Maimonides as having reached...
"the highest degree of intellectual perfection open to man, barring only the still higher degree of prophetic inspiration." כל מה שאמר אריסטו בכל הנמצא אשר מתחת גלגל הירח עד מרכז הארץ הוא "אמת בלא ספק." ~מורה נבוכים ח"ב כב
HaRambam (Maimonides) also wrote: that [all] Wisdoms were initially with [the people of] Yisrael – however in the domination of the [gentile] peoples upon us it came into their hands and when we learn a matter from them it appears that their conception [of the wisdom] was from them but it is really the opposite. -Moreh Nevukhim (the guide to the Perplexed), section 1 perek 71

And says R' Yaakov Hillel: since the writings of the Zohar were not revealed to earlier generations, the great Early Authorities, like the Rambam (in Moreh Nevukhim) and Rabbenu Behaye in "Shaar HaYihud, Hovat HaLevavot" ch. 1 [Duties of the heart] attempted to explain many lofty concepts through the wisdom of philosophy.
__________
The "Kuzari” [where R' Yehuda HaLevi discusses various faiths and their comparison to Judaism], hand writings saying 42 states: that the philosophers were once asked, from where did they receive the wisdom of their philosophy? And they said that it came from the Jews - and all of their wisdom and general principles came from the Jews of Alexandria. And afterwards to Paras (Persia) and Medes and afterwards to Greece and finally to the Romans. And over time, through much of their wanderings they had lost the recollection that these wisdoms were indeed [originally] passed over from their ancestors – and not from the Greeks or Romans. ראיתי בכוזרי [לרבי יהודה הלוי] כתיבות יד בראשית מ"ב [ב-סו]... כי נשאל לפלוסופים מאין יבא אליהם חכמת הפלוסופיא? ואמרו שבאה מהיהודים וכל החכמות העתקו שרשיהם וכלליהם מהיהודים האלכסנדריים, ואח"כ לפרס ולמדי ואח"כ ליון ואח"כ לרומה ובאורך הזמן ורב המצועים לא הוזכרו בחכמות. שנעתקו מהעברים זולתי מן היוונים ורומים ע"כ וכתב בעל ספר שבילי אמונה שראה שכתוב שכאשר אלכסנדרוס הלך לירושלים השליט אריסטו רבו על ספרי שלמה והעתיק משם הפלסופיא וקרא על שמו
____ Any real Torah scholar would pick up on a charlatan's inability to read a verse of the Torah without making a grammatical error. There was a time when philosophy was used instead of Sod, secrets of Torah , but that was before the foundational texts were revealed to the public. Since then there are no great Rabbis who deny reincarnation or the basic kabbalistic texts. The Hascala movement had a strong opposition to the mystical tradition as it provides answers to the greatest questions in life. Even science can be found , gravity is called Mati vLa Mati ... Touching and not touching... Zero gravity. Number of stars, radius of earth etc etc... See Rabbi Zamir Cohen book, the coming revolution Hamahapakh vol. 1 & 2 _______
Aristotle was "EATING a RABBIT while it was still ALIVE." אריסטו, כשאוכל ארנבת חיה

It is well known of the story of the Greek philosopher Aristotle, of who's wisdom and fine manners had held everyone in admiration - for he was a great teacher of etiquette, a gentle soul...

Yet one time his disciples observed him at home in the presense of his wife and close ones...
...as he was "EATING a RABBIT while it was still ALIVE." As he was devouring it's thigh, they said to him: OUR TEACHER !!
Have you not taught us about polite manners at meals, was this really a dream we dreamt?
He told them: gentlemen! In the classroom I am Aristotle, but here at home I am "THE LION THAT DEVOURS."
ידוע הסיפור על הוגה הידיעות היווני אריסטו זכותו תגן עליו שכולם היו מתפעלים מחוכמתו וממידותיו הטרומיות, היה מורה דגול לנימוסים והליכות, עדין בנפשו. ופעם ראוהו תלמידיו בביתו שהוא אוכל ארנבת חיה על קירבה וכרעיה: "חוטף שוק". אמרו לו רבינו! למדתנו נימוסים הליכות. דרך ארץ בסעודה, האומנם חלום חלמנו?? אמר להם: רבותיי! בכיתה אני אריסטו. כאן בבית אני "הארי הדורס..." ~עד כאן. וכבר אמרו חז"ל באיכה רבה (ב, יג): "חכמה בגויים" תאמין, אולם "תורה בגויים" אל תאמין

And this story is PROOF of the Midrashic saying: (Eicha Rabba 2:13) “Hokhma bagoyim taamin…Torah bagoyim al taamin” meaning that while non-Jews do possess wisdom (Hokhma), they cannot reach the highest form of wisdom referred to as Torah.

Note: WISDOM is dependent on the 'RUAH' [spirit soul] and that the gentiles do have, but WISDOM which comes from the 'NESHAMAH' [G-dly soul], is only to be found within the Torah. והחכמה תלויה ברוח וזה יש להם אבל חכמה שבאה מהנשמה זה רק בתורה

It is also interesting to mention that according to tradition, a Yehudi [=Jew] has 32 TEETH (as in the 32 paths of wisdom) as opposed to a GENTILE, who has 33. -Sources: Rabeinu HaHida [Azulai], and it's source and reason is brought in Midrash Talpiyot, Anaf Eivarim (the chapter of organs). That is mainly "to distinguish Yisrael from the Gentiles and receive NESHAMAH." -til here
רבנו החיד״א ז״ל כתב במדבר קדמות , כי ליהודי יש ל״ב שיניים [כמו ל"ב נתיבות חכמה] , אך לגוי יש ל״ג שיניים וכתב מקורו במדרש תלפיות ענף איברים, שבעיקר לעשות הבדל בין ישראל לאוה"ע [=אומות העולם] בתולדות השיניים ולקבל שפע לנשמתו. -עכ"ד

___________
Aristotle recants all his previous philosophic teachings, having been convinced of their incorrectness by a Jewish sage. The following "letter" is the conclusion of a book of Aristotle, "two hands thick," in which he withdraws, based on his studying with a Jew, Simeon (Shimon HaTzadik); his views with regard to secular philosophy.
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{Translation by: Aaron Hai, based on Seder HaDorot - סדר הדורות ד"א תתקכז ד"ה ויהי}

Eternal are the words of Aristotle of which he wrote to Alexander his student (his remembrance be blessed). Blessed is Hashem who makes the blind see, shows the way for the sinners - who is praised by praises that are shown to him, according to which I have recovered in his mercy and all of his kindness in which he saved me from all of my illogical folly...

All the days of my life I delved in the wisdom of philosophy, and I would judge all of these matters by the right of logic. I compiled books as numerous as the grains of sand on the shore, in which have spread out to all those who sought it. Until the end of my days, when i debated with a wise Jewish Sage [Shimon HaTzadik] who showed me his strong hand in the Torah tradition from SINAI. And he persuaded my heart through words of Torah. While he showed me Miracles and Wonders through the Holy and real Names - revealed to the senses. Now I know that most of these things are above logic and when seeing all of this, I contemplated the JEWISH FAITH in my heart and with all of my might, which is when I realized that this is nothing like the Philosophies of darkness.
Therefore my pleasant student Alexander the Great King, do not be mistaken by my books, neither you nor your Philosopher friends. For if I could possibly gather all of these books which have been spread all over the world...
"I would burn them in front of all the princes and the deputies, so that their minds and opinions not be tainted." For now I know that I will be severely punished by the Almighty, for I have sinned and caused the multitudes to sin [continue reading →]...

מכתב מאריסטו לאלכסנדר מוקדון
ומעשה היה בפילוסוף גדול המפורסם בעולם שנקרא אריסטו, שבימי זקנותו כתב אגרת לתלמידו אלכסנדר מוקדון מלך יון בזה הנוסח; ''ברוך ה' הפוקח עינים עוורות המראה לחטאים דרך ישרה. מהולל יהיה בתהלה הנאוה לו, כי איני יודע להללו על הרחמים והחסד הרב שעשה עמי, שהוציאני מחושך לאור... ומעשה היה בפילוסוף גדול המפורסם בעולם שנקרא אריסטו, שבימי זקנותו כתב אגרת לתלמידו
:אלכסנדר מוקדון מלך יון בזה הנוסח

ברוך ה' הפוקח עינים עוורות המראה לחטאים דרך ישרה. מהולל יהיה בתהלה הנאוה לו, כי איני יודע להללו על הרחמים והחסד הרב שעשה עמי, שהוציאני מן השטות הזו שהייתי שקוע בה כל ימי חיי, בעסק חכמת הפילוסופיה להסביר כל דבר בדרך הטבע שמובן על פי השכל, ועשיתי ספרים הרבה בחכמה הזו כחול אשר על שפת הים. עד שנתוכחתי עכשיו בערוב חיי עם חכם אחד מחכמי ישראל [והוא שמעון הצדיק], ובדבריו עמי הראה חכמתו הגדולה, והכרתי את מעלת התורה הקדושה שניתנה בהר סיני, והוא משך לבי בדברי התורה שהראה לי והסביר לי חידושים אמתיים ופלאים שנעשו. ואני הייתי פרא שלא הבינותי שרוב הדברים נוהג אותם הקב''ה בדרך פלא חוץ מדרך הטבע. ומשראיתי כך, נתתי אל לבי לדרוש ולתור בחכמת התורה שכל דבריה מיוסדים על אדני האמת ואין היא כחכמת הפילוסופיה שהיא הבל. ולכן אתה תלמידי אלכסנדר המלך הגדול, אל ידיחו ספרי לא אותך ולא את חביריך הפילוסופים, שאילו היה בכוחי לאסוף את כל הספרים שחברתי בחכמה הזאת בודאי היייתי שורף אותם באש כדי שלא ישאר שום דבר מהם. אבל אין הדבר בידי שכן ספרי נפוצו בכל העולם ואי אפשר לכנס כולם. ואני יודע יפה העונש החמור שיענישני בוראי על החטא הגדול שחטאתי שאיבדתי הזמן במו ידי והחטאתי רבים. ולכן בני אלכסנדר כתבתי המכתב הזה כדי להודיעך לך ולכל חביריך שרוב הדברים שרוצים להסביר בדרך הטבע כדי שיובנו על פי השכל דברי שקר הם, שבודאי הקב''ה הוא פטרונו של עולם והוא מנהגו בכוחו הגדול. ומפני שמזלי גרם שספרי נפוצו בארצות המערב, אני מודיע עכשיו לכולם שלא יאבדו זמנם בהם, לא יסתכלו בהם ולא יגעו בהם בידיהם. שעוון גדול הוא לבלות הזמן על ספרי פילוסופיה שהיא שקר שאין לו רגלים. ועכשיו אני את נפשי הצלתי בזה שהודעתי את טעותי ואשמתי לא חמורה כל כך על העבר, כי לא ידעתי. אבל עכשיו שגיליתי הדבר לבריות שחייתי בטעות ולבי נשרף על הזמן שכיליתי בהבלים, אוי לאלו שלבם נמשך אחרי ספרי, בודאי יהיו בתחתית שאול
“Say to Wisdom, ‘You are my sister,’ and consider understanding your relative. That they may keep you from the strange woman [secular philosophy], from the loose woman who speaks so smoothly” (Proverbs 7:4,5). And “Do not extend your heart in her [philosophy's] path” (Mishlei / Proverbs 7:25) for... “All those that come to her [philosophy] will not return...” -Mishlei 2:19
ודע שכפי שהורה לי אותו חכם מצאתי הרבה דברים בספר משלי שחיבר שלמה המלך [בן דוד] שלא יגרר אדם אחר חכמת הפילוסופיה באומרו
לשמרך מאשה זרה מנכריה אמריה החליקה (משלי ז,ה) - וכתיב אל ישט אל דרכיה לבך (שם ז,ה) וכתיב: כל באיה לא ישובון ~שם ב,יט

אוי לעינים שכך רואות. אוי לאזנים שכך שומעות. אוי לי! [נ"א: אללי לי] - שכיליתי גופי וכוחי בדברים מזיקים. וזה שאתה משבח אותי ואומר שמעי בכל העולם בגלל הספרים שעשיתי, ומעריצים אותי הערצה רבה, בודאי טוב המות מזה שנפוצו ספרי בכל העולם [נוסח אחר: דע כי הייתי בוחר שיהיה לי שם בס"ת ממה שיהיה לי שם בספרי מינות. והייתי בוחר מחנק לנפשי משיתפשטו ספרי. כי תופשי התורה ילכו לאור באור החיים. ותופשי הפלוסופיא ילכו לבאר שחת]. ודאי אלו שעוסקים בתורה ירשו חיי עולם הבא, ואלו שעוסקים בספרי ירשו גיהנם. ואף אני מוכן ליענש על כולם. וזה שלא כתבתי לך מכתב זה קודם לכן, כי חששתי שמא תכעס עלי ותעשה לי רע. אבל עכשיו גמרתי אומר להודיעך הדבר, כי יודע אני שלפני שיגיע מכתבי זה לידך כבר אהיה נתון בארון עצים, כי הגעתי לסוף ימי. ושלום מן המורה [מלמד] אריסטו הפורש מן העולם [ההולך לבית עולמו] לאלכסנדר מלך יון הגדול... ~ילקוט מעם לועז, יתרו כ, א

Translation by: R' Aryeh Kaplan ztz"l

When the great philosopher Aristotle was old, he sent the following letter to his student, Alexander the Great:

“Blessed be He who opens the eyes of the blind and shows sinners the true path. Let Him be praised in an appropriate manner; since I do not know how to praise Him for the great kindness and mercy which He showed me. I am eternally grateful to Him, for getting me away from the foolishness to which I had devoted my life.

All my life I delved into philosophy, to explain all natural phenomena in a logical manner. I wrote many books on these subjects. Finally, in the twilight of my life, I had the opportunity to engage in a conversation with a Jewish sage. It did not take me long to recognize his great wisdom, and he led me to understand how great is the Torah that was given on Mount Sinai.

He taught me the inner depth of the Torah, providing me with many brilliant insights based on its teachings. I realized how foolish I had been for not realizing, how G-d can manipulate the laws of nature; and that much of what happens in the world is directed by G-d.

Realizing all this, I decided to devote myself to exploring the wisdom of the Torah. It did not take me long to realize, that the Torah is based on true foundations, while the axioms of philosophy are purely arbitrary.

Therefore, my dear student Alexander, if I had the power to collect all the books I have written - I would burn them. I would be embarrassed for any of them to survive. However, I realize that I do not have this power; my books have already been published and have spread all over the world. I also realize, that I will receive Divine punishment for having written such misleading books.

Therefore, my son, Alexander, I am writing this letter to tell you that the great majority of my theories regarding natural law - are false. While nature does exist, G-d is the Lord of the universe, and He directs all things as He sees fit. I am telling everyone openly - that they should not waste time with my books. They should not look at them or even touch them with their hands. It is sinful to waste time on the false theories that I have espoused.

I feel that I have saved my soul by admitting my error; I hope that I will not be held guilty for the past, since I acted out of ignorance [I did not know]. But now I have revealed to the public that I was mistaken and that my heart aches for the time I have wasted on my foolish theories. Those who waste time on my books therefore will deserve to be punished.

The Jewish scholar with whom I spoke showed me the book of Proverbs (Mishley), written by King Solomon, one of the greatest geniuses of all times. The scholar showed me, that in many places, King Solomon warned against wasting time on philosophical speculation. One such place is where he said, “Say to Wisdom, ‘You are my sister,’ and consider understanding your relative. That they may keep you from the strange woman [secular philosophy], from the loose woman who speaks so smoothly” (Proverbs 7:4,5). And “Do not extend your heart in her [philosophy's] path” (Mishlei / Proverbs 7:25) for... “All those that come to her [philosophy] will not return...” (Mishlei / Proverbs 2:19)

Woe to the eyes that thus is what they see and woe is to the ears that thus is what they hear. Woe is to me! - I feel sorry for my eyes for what they have seen, and my ears for what they have heard. I feel sorry for my body, for wasting its strength on such detrimental studies.

I know that you praise me and tell me that I am famous all over the world because of the books I have written. People speak very highly of me. But I wish I were dead, because of the misleading books that I have spread all over the world. People who devote themselves to the Torah, will earn eternal life; while those who devote themselves to my books will go to the pit of the destruction [ie, the grave]. But I am prepared to accept upon myself the punishment of them all.

I did not write to you earlier because I was afraid that you would be angry with me, and perhaps even harm me. But now I have made up my mind to tell you the truth. I know that by the time you receive this letter, I will already be dead and buried, because I realize that my end is near [perhaps he wrote the letter while sick].

I salute you with greetings of peace, Alexander of Macedon, great emperor and ruler.”

Your teacher,
Aristotle

-From The Torah anthology, English, (Yalkut ME’AM LO’EZ, Yitro) - Volume 6, Page 154-155
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The Jew spoken of, was Shimon HaTzaddik (Simeon the Just), who was a Cohen Gadol (High Priest) during the time of the Second Temple. He is also known for his opinions which are recorded in the Mishnah, (making him a Tanna, in Rabbinic terminology). And There is an introduction to the letter from the author of "Shalshelet Hakabala” printed in the Jewish Year 5346 [over 420 years ago] and it was likely translated from Greek to Hebrew... In the paragraphs preceding the letter mentioned about Aristotle it states that Aristotle ultimately became a righteous convert [to Judaism] at the end of his life ("Ger Tzedek" - proselyte).
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Josephus, or Yosef Ben Matityahu told over:
That Alexander of Macedonia kindly relieved the Jews of their taxes in the year of SHEMITAH [sabbatical year]
"...since they don't work their fields in the SHEMITAH year." -Antiquities of the Jews 11, 8:6 יוסף בן מתתיהו מספר (קדמוניות יא, ח, ו) שאלכסנדר מוקדון פטר את היהודים מתשלום מיסים בשנות שמיטה, מכיוון שהם אינם מעבדים את שדותיהם בשנות שמיטה
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Alexander the Great, who would become the Conqueror of the Ancient World, was born at Pella, Macedonia in 356 B.C.E.
{Born w/ Sun in LEO}. Alexander the Great died when Aristotle was about 60...
Around the year 343 BC King Philip of Macedonia invited Aristotle to tutor his 13 year old son, Alexander. In 335 BC, Aristotle founded his own school in Athens where Alexander, born 356 B.C.E. {w/ Sun in LEO} studied under him for another 12 years.
אלכסנדר מוקדון, בהגיעו למחוז שכולו נשים כנזכר בירושלמי בבא מציעה פרק ב' ובפסיקתא דרב כהנא פ"ט - ובתלמוד בבלי, תמיד לב,ב - למדינה "קרטינגא" הסמוכה לעיר טוניס והוא במהלך של כ' יום מהעיר תיבין בירת מצרים הדרומית סיפור המתאים לספורי הקדמונים שהיו נשים אמזונות
(Amazons, a nation of all-female warriors)
The following story is translated from the Talmud Bavli, Tamid 32b
A different version [discussion] is written in the Talmud Yerushalmi Bava Metzi'a ch. 2

When Alexander Mokdon told the elderly sages of the south that he was about to embark for Afriki [Africa], they told him that this was impossible - due to the dark mountains (that saw no light by night nor by day) that one had to pass. Whereby Alexandrus replied: I am determined to go -- tell me how! The Hakhamim answered: Take big donkeys of Egypt that can go in the dark, and balls of ropes; tie one end of the ropes where there is light, and take the other end through the dark so you will know how to return (by following the string back).

Alexandrus did so, he came to a city of [only] women [Pesikta D'rav Cahanah & The Yerushalmi, Bava Metzia ch. 2 call it: קרטינגא (Carthage) which is a 20 day trip from Tunisia], and planned to wage war against it. They said to him (when he threatened to attack them) - that were he to defeat them, people would say that he had killed a town of women, whereas if they defeated him, they would say that he was defeated by women (no glory, either way). Alexandrus [agreed], he requested bread and they served him - golden food on golden tables. (when he asked them whether they always ate golden food) - The women replied: that he surely was not short of food in his own country (so it wasn't food that he had come for), but gold, so that was what they were offering him. When he left the city, he wrote on the gates - that he had been a fool until he arrived in Africa, where he had received wisdom/counsel from women. When Alexandrus left, he wrote on the gate of the city, "I, Alexandrus, was foolish until I came to an African city of women who have taught me wisdom." בעי למיעבד קרבא בהדייהו, [=רצה להילחם בהן] א"ל: "אי קטלת לן יאמרו נשי קטל אי קטלנא לך יאמרו מלכא דקטלוהו נשי!" [=אם תהרוג אותנו – יאמרו נשים הרג. אם נהרוג אותך, יאמרו שאתה מלך שנשים הרגו אותו]. (תמיד ל"א:). הנשים המושלות היו עשירות מאוד בזהב ונתנו לו ככרי זהב על השולחן במקום ככרי לחם. אמר להו: "מי אכלי אינשי נהמא דדהבא?" [=האם אוכלים בני אדם לחם מזהב?] א"ל: "אלא אי נהמא בעית לא הוא לך באתרך נהמא למיכל דשקלית ואתית להכא?!" [=אמרו לו: אם לחם אתה צריך, אין במקומך לחם שאתה באת עד כאן?] כי נפיק ואתי כתב אבבא דמחוזא: [=כשיצא כתב על פתח הבית] "אנא אלכסנדרוס מקדון הויתי שטיא עד דאתיתי למדינת אפריקי דנשי ויליפת עצה מן נשי" [=אני אלכסנדר מוקדון הייתי שוטה, עד שבאתי לאפריקה ולמדתי חכמה מן הנשים. -שם ◯◯◯◯◯◯◯◯◯◯◯◯◯◯◯◯◯◯◯◯◯◯◯◯◯◯◯◯◯◯◯◯◯ הפתח של גן עדן THE OPENING TO GAN EDEN [PARADISE]
When he was returning, he sat to eat bread by a stream. He had salted fish with him, and was rinsing off the salt in the stream; they absorbed a nice smell (Rosh - returned to life). He concluded that the stream comes from Gan Eden. Version #1: He [merely] washed his face in the water. Version #2: He followed the stream to its source, the entrance to Gan Eden, and raised his voice that it be opened for him. When he demanded that they open the gates for him - he was quoted the the Pasuk in Tehilim 118:20 This is the Lord's gate; the righteous will enter therein. ["Zeh ha'Sha'ar la'Hashem, Tzadikim Yavo'u Vo"] (a category to which he did not belong). Alexandrus exclaimed: I am a king, I am important -- [if you will not let me in], give me something! So they gave him a skull (Rabeinu Asher, the Rosh says: an eyeball) -- he put it on the scale against all his gold and silver, it outweighed them. He asked the Hakhamim to explain this. They answered: It is of flesh and blood, it is never sated and it always seeks to draw more towards itself (just like your wealth did not satisfy you, you had to go to Africa). Alexandrus: How can I verify your answer? ואתי יתיב אההוא מעיינא קא אכיל נהמא הוו בידיה גולדני דמלחא בהדי דמחוורי להו נפל בהו ריחא אמר ש"מ האי עינא מגן עדן אתי איכא דאמרי שקל מהנהו מיא טרא באפיה איכא דאמרי אידלי כוליה עד דמטא לפתחא דגן עדן רמא קלא פתחו לי בבא אמרו ליה (תהלים קיח, כ) זה השער לה' צדיקים יבאו בו ------- [כלומר, אתה לא בדרגת הצדיקים‏]... אמר להון אנא נמי מלכא אנא מיחשב חשיבנא הבו לי מידי יהבו ליה גולגלתא חדא אתייה תקליה לכוליה דהבא וכספא דידיה בהדיה לא הוה מתקליה אמר להון לרבנן מאי האי אמרי גולגלתא לעינא דבישרא ודמא דלא קא שבע
Hakhamim answered: Cover it with dirt [so it cannot see], then you can find its weight. He did so, and succeeded as written: "The grave and Gehinnam (purgatory) will not be sated, and the eyes of man will not be sated." [She'ol va'Avadon Lo Tisba'nah, v'Einei ha'Adam Lo Tisbanah] -Proverbs 24:20 אמר להו ממאי דהכי הוא שקלי קלילי עפרא וכסייה לאלתר תקלא דכתיב {משלי כז,כ} "שְׁאוֹל ואבדה [וַאֲבַדּוֹ] לא תִשְׂבַּעְנָה וְעֵינֵי הָאָדָם לא תִשְׂבַּעְנָה." - תנא דבי אליהו גיהנם למעלה מן הרקיע וי"א לאחורי הרי חשך ~תמיד לב,ב
[Meaning that: Gehinam, destruction and the human eye are never satisfied]...
The Gemara quotes Tana de'Bei Eliyahu: Gehinam is above Raki'a (the second Heaven). 'Yesh Omrim' there are those who maintain - that it is behind the Harei Hoshekh (mountains of darkness). -Tamid 32b
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At age 16 Alexander was called to Macedonia to put down a Thracian rebellion while his father was away. Distinguishing himself immediately, Alexander quelled the rebellion, stormed the rebel’s stronghold and renamed it Alexandroupolis, after himself.

In 336 B.C.E. Phillip was assassinated and 20 year old Alexander took the throne of Macedonia. Within two years he had embarked on his campaign of conquest. His army of 30,000 foot soldiers and 5,000 cavalreymen was small but efficient. Along with the army he took engineers, surveyors, architects, scientists and even historians.
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David ha'Melekh wrote in Tehilim [Psalms 119:126], "Eit La'asot la'Hashem Hefeiru Toratekha..." A time to do for the Lord;
they have made void Your Torah (meaning that one may sometimes nullify Torah when it is for the sake of Hashem).

The Kuthim [Samarians], bitter enemies of the Jews, had convinced Alexander that the Jews' refusal to place his image in their Temple was a sign of rebellion against his sovereignty, and that the Holy Temple should be destroyed.

On the 21st of Kislev Alexander marched on Jerusalem at the head of his army; Shimon HaTzadik, garbed in the vestments of the High Priest [Bigdei Kehunah] and accompanied with a delegation of Jewish dignitaries, went forth to greet him [this is forbidden?! - this was an emergency "Eit La'asot la'HaShem"]. The two groups walked towards each other all night and at the crack of dawn they met.

As Alexander beheld the visage of the High Priest, he dismounted his horse and bowed respectfully; to his men he explained that he often had visions of a similar-looking man leading him into battle (according to the Agadot Maharsha, it was an angel who resembled him). Shimon HaTzaddik brought the emperor to the Holy Temple and explained that Judaism prohibits the display of any graven image; he offered to name all the male children born to priests that year "Alexander" as a demonstration of loyalty to the emperor (which is how "Alexander" became a common Jewish name). The Samarians plot was rebuffed, and Kislev 21 of the year 3448 from creation (313 B.C.E), was declared a holiday. -Yoma 69a
ת"ש בגדי כהונה היוצא בהן למדינה אסור ובמקדש בין בשעת עבודה בין שלא בשעת עבודה מותר מפני שבגדי כהונה ניתנו ליהנות בהן ש"מ ובמדינה לא והתניא: בעשרים וחמשה [בטבת] יום הר גרזים [הוא] דלא למספד יום שבקשו כותיים
?את בית אלקינו מאלכסנדרוס מוקדון להחריבו ונתנו להם באו והודיעו את שמעון הצדיק מה עשה לבש בגדי כהונה ונתעטף בבגדי כהונה ומיקירי ישראל עמו ואבוקות של אור בידיהן וכל הלילה הללו הולכים מצד זה והללו הולכים מצד זה עד שעלה עמוד השחר כיון שעלה עמוד השחר אמר להם מי הללו אמרו לו יהודים שמרדו בך כיון שהגיע לאנטיפטרס זרחה חמה ופגעו זה בזה כיון שראה לשמעון הצדיק ירד ממרכבתו והשתחוה לפניו אמרו לו מלך גדול כמותך ישתחוה ליהודי זה אמר להם דמות דיוקנו של זה מנצחת לפני בבית מלחמתי אמר להם למה באתם אמרו אפשר בית שמתפללים בו עליך ועל מלכותך שלא תחרב יתעוך עובדי כוכבים להחריבו אמר להם מי הללו אמרו לו כותיים הללו שעומדים לפניך אמר להם הרי הם מסורין בידיכם מיד נקבום בעקביהם ותלאום בזנבי סוסיהם והיו מגררין אותן על הקוצים ועל הברקנים עד שהגיעו להר גרזים כיון שהגיעו להר גריזים חרשוהו וזרעוהו כרשינין כדרך שבקשו לעשות לבית אלהינו ואותו היום עשאוהו יו"ט אי בעית אימא ראויין לבגדי כהונה ואי בעית אימא (תהלים קיט, קכו) עת לעשות לה' הפרו תורתך... ~יומא סט,א

Alexander [the Great] then gave his teacher Aristotle control over King Shlomo HaMelekh's books. He plagiarized his philosophies from there, and called them by his own name… [In Sheva HaChochmot by Dov Rafel, Jerusalem, 5750, chapter... He cites many sources, both Jewish and non-Jewish, which mention these traditions].


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SciencE...

Rabbi Yosef Bittón
Ohel David UShlomo Congregation
710 Shore Blvd, Manhattan Beach
Writes....

In Bereshit we read that the Creator created life through inorganic matter. On the fifth day through water and on the sixth day by the dust of earth.

The creation of life from inorganic matter marks a boundary, a frontier that man cannot cross.


In my latest book "Dinosaurs and the Bible" (which has not yet been published) I explained that the Achilles heel of the theory of evolution, which is rarely mentioned in the schools, is the scientific research of the origin of life, i.e., how does science justify the appearance of life from inorganic matter. While the issue is too extensive to summarize in a few words, what the reader should know is that modern science has no definitive, nor convincing answer to explain "life".


In the words of the eminent British scientist Fred Hoyle (1915-2001): "Life as we know it, is among other things, dependent on at least 2000 different enzymes. How could the blind forces of the primal sea manage to put together the correct chemical elements to build enzymes? .... The likelihood of the formation of life from inanimate matter is one in 10 ^ 40,000 (1 over 10, followed by 40,000 zeros) ... [this number] is big enough to bury Darwin and the whole theory of Evolution .... These are the odds [for the spontaneous appearance] of just a single, simple cell, without which evolution cannot even get started. Never mind the odds of more advanced compounds like an organ or all the enzymes in a human being. "

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The First Day of creation, chronologically speaking, does not begin in the first verse of the Tora. Although from the point of view of the biblical text the first day of creation includes verses 1 and 2, DAY ONE begins with the appearance of the light, in verse 3. Why? Because DAY ONE is determined by the day / night transition. Therefore, the first two verses of the Tora correspond to “DAY ZERO”. This first observation can help us, among other things, to better understand the complexity of the question of time since Creation. The time that has elapsed since DAY ONE excludes the undetermined time from the first Act of Creation (verse 1) to the appearance of light (verse 3).

Now let’s look at the words of the first verse.

BERESHIT (In the beginning …):
“Bereshit” does not mean “In the beginning”, it literally means: “In the beginning of ….” But instead of being followed by a noun (In the beginning of time, etc.) it is followed by a verb, “created”, the perfect past tense of the verb create. What makes this word more complex is that the Hebrew word BERESHIT is also marked by a sign that represents a comma (tarha). The combination of the genitive (nismakh) and a comma, something not only unusual but contradictory, led me to suggest that the word BERESHIT should be understood in a reflexive sense. Something like “In the beginning of the … beginning.” That is, when nothing but God existed, not even atoms or some prime matter in a chaotic state, as suggested by the Greek philosopher Plato.

BARA (created):
The second word, BARA, confirms the explanation of the first. BARA is used to indicate an exclusively Divine creation; a creation from nothing (ex-nihilo). It should be noted that while we understand in general the two ideas expressed in these two words– “In the beginning …”, before there was matter or time; and “created” bringing into existence something from nothing — are absolutely incomprehensible to our limited understanding. This is the esoteric or mystical aspect of the creation account, it is no possible to visualize it, its nature is unattainable for the human mind.

ELOHIM (God):
This is the most relevant word of this entire verse and the story of Creation. The main message of the Tora is that God is the Creator of the Universe, and the world was not created spontaneously, as an accidental quantum act. This is fundamental because if the world has a Creator, creation has a purpose, and vice versa.

ET HASHAMAYIM (The heavens):
Maimonides explains that the words of the Tora uses are not complicated regarding their literal meaning. The difficulty is that the semantic sense of the word changes, sometimes significantly, according to the context in which it appears. In the creation account, the word shamayim, literally “heavens”, appears in different contexts. Shamayim generally refers to the visible, bright or dark sky. It can also refer to the solar system: the sun, the moon and the planets that keep earth in its privileged location that allows the existence of liquid water. In our case, the first verse of the Tora, the meaning of this word covers the universe exhaustively. With one exception: our planet.

VE-ET HAAERETS (and the Earth).
This word obviously refers to our planet. And it helps us better understand the extraordinary magnitude of the first act of creation. At the moment it is estimated that the universe includes more than 100 billion galaxies. Each galaxy contains 100 billion stars and each star, an indeterminate number of planets (our star, the sun, has 8 or 9) and each planet, taking into account our own solar system can have between 1 and 50 satellites (moons).
All this unimaginable number of celestial bodies is described with a single word “hashamayim”: the universe.
But the most interesting thing, I think, is that the Tora highlights with a separate word a quantitatively insignificant planet that will have the privilege of being conditioned by the Creator to host life and humanity.
From the second verse on, “heavens” will no longer be modified, and the Tora will concentrate exclusively on our planet, as we will explain BH later.


To summarize: the first verse of the Tora describes the creation of the entire universe, all existing matter, including our planet.

So, what does the first act of creation exclude? Planet earth will be modified in the next four days to generate by Divine command the two elements not included in the first act of creation: life, FIFTH DAY, and human intelligence (nefesh, neshama), SIXTH DAY.
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We learn from ... 1. ... "Shuvu Banim Shovavim" that there are certain sins that do not require any atonement, but for which Teshuvah [repentance] alone wipes one's slate clean (which Hazal [the Rabbis in Talmud] referred to Mitzvot Aseh [positive commandments]). 2. ... "Ki va'Yom ha'Zeh Yechaper Aleichem mi'Kol Chatoteichem" - that other sins require Yom Kippur (Lo Ta'aseh [nrgative commandments]). 3. ... "u'Fakadti b'Shevet Pish'am u'vi'Nega'im Avonam" - that yet other sins, require suffering as well. (c) Hilul Hashem [desecrating the name of God] requires all three, before death completes the atonement. -Yoma 86a

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 A Gaon = a genius in the 7 wisdoms in the world...
seven liberal branches of knowledge, viz grammar, logic, rhetoric, arithmetic, geometry [building], astronomy [metaphysics] and music.

Noah WebstersDictionary1828.com defined online: SCI'ENCE, n. [L. scientia, from scio, to know.


גאון ב7 חכמות... הגיון, חשבון, שיעור, רפואה, ניגון, כישוף, אלהות
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Ahava, Ahva, Reut, Hiba, Hemda, Hedva, 
Six types and words 4Luv in Hebrew







Yesodei haTorah - Chapter One

1-The foundation of all foundations and the pillar of wisdom is to know that there is a Primary Being who brought into being all existence. All the beings of the heavens, the earth, and what is between them came into existence only from the truth of His being.

א
.יסוד היסודות ועמוד החכמות לידע שיש שם מצוי ראשון והוא ממציא כל נמצא וכל הנמצאים משמים וארץ ומה שביניהם לא נמצאו אלא מאמתת המצאו:

2-If one would imagine that He does not exist, no other being could possibly exist.

ב
.ואם יעלה על הדעת שהוא אינו מצוי אין דבר אחר יכול להמצאות:

3-If one would imagine that none of the entities aside from Him exist, He alone would continue to exist, and the nullification of their [existence] would not nullify His existence, because all the [other] entities require Him and He, blessed be He, does not require them nor any one of them. Therefore, the truth of His [being] does not resemble the truth of any of their [beings]. 5
This entity is the God of the world and the Lord of the entire earth. He controls the sphere with infinite and unbounded power. This power [continues] without interruption, because the sphere is constantly revolving, and it is impossible for it to revolve without someone causing it to revolve. [That one is] He, blessed be He, who causes it to revolve without a hand or any [other] corporeal dimension.


7-This God is one. He is not two or more, but one, unified in a manner which [surpasses] any unity that is found in the world; i.e., He is not one in the manner of a general category which includes many individual entities, nor one in the way that the body is divided into different portions and dimensions. Rather, He is unified, and there exists no unity similar to His in this world.

If there were many gods, they would have body and form, because like entities are separated from each other only through the circumstances associated with body and form.

Were the Creator to have body and form, He would have limitation and definition, because it is impossible for a body not to be limited. And any entity which itself is limited and defined [possesses] only limited and defined power. Since our God, blessed be His name, possesses unlimited power, as evidenced by the continuous revolution of the sphere, we see that His power is not the power of a body. Since He is not a body, the circumstances associated with bodies that produce division and separation are not relevant to Him. Therefore, it is impossible for Him to be anything other than one.

The knowledge of this concept fulfills a positive commandment, as [implied by Deuteronomy 6:4]: "[Hear, Israel,] God is our Lord, God is one."


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THE YOUNG EMPEROR AND THE HIGH PRIEST
When he was little over 30 years old, Alexander the Great became one of the most successful conquerors in history. In around 330 BCE (before the common era), the Greek and Macedonian armies under his command defeated the forces of the powerful Persian Empire, with whom they had been at war since the time of Achashverosh (Xerxes, 480 BCE). Alexander’s dominions extended from Greece to India, including the entire Middle East.

Alexander the Great visited the land of Israel, one of the territories he conquered from the Persians. When he arrived in Jerusalem he demanded what was considered at that time a typical gesture of submission by the ruler’s new subjects: to honor his god, Zeus, to whom he attributed his victory. Honoring Zeus meant the Jews would place his statue in their most sacred space, the Great Temple in Jerusalem, the Bet haMiqdash. All the nations of Alexander's new empire followed the traditional practice: they honored the 
gods of the new emperor and placed new statues for their worship in their old temples. There was only one nation that resisted: the Jewish people.

YOU SHALL HAVE NO OTHER GODS BESIDES ME 
Our ancestors flatly refused to put up a statue of Zeus, a pagan idol, in our Bet haMiqdash. Jewish monotheism does not only consist of the affirmation that there is “one God.” It also demands the denial of the existence (and power) of other gods. This is sourced in the second commandment of the decalogue which states: “You shall not have other gods before Me.” 

A delegation of Jews was formed, headed by Shimon haTsadiq, the High Priest, in an attempt to convince their new emperor that resistance to his idols did not equal a rejection of his kingship. When Shimon haTsadiq met with Alexander, he explained that Jewish monotheism demands “exclusivity” in terms of their worship, something that was difficult for pagan people of ancient times to understand. The Jews told Alexander that if he would not accept their polite refusal they would not offer any armed resistance. They were willing to sacrifice their lives peacefully (‘al Qiddush Hashem) in exchange for not carrying out the emperor’s demand. Moreover, according to a well known Jewish tradition, the Jews offered Alexander a special sign of submission and recognition: all Jewish boys born that year would be named “Alexander” in his honor. Alexander the Great accepted the explanation of the Jews and gave up his demand to erect a monument to his god in Jerusalem.

A TRUE MIRACLE
Normally, refusing to accept the victor’s gods would have clearly been understood as a rejection of the new conqueror. Hence, it should have resulted in the immediate annihilation of the Jewish people and the destruction of Jerusalem by Alexander. It was a great miracle that Alexander agreed to tolerate the strictures demanded by Jewish monotheism. 

To comprehend the magnitude of this miracle we must explore several factors that characterized the pagan historical milieu of that time, which was wholly incompatible with Jewish theology and worship. 

No other nation resisted like the Jews. In accordance to their polytheistic mentality, when a people were defeated, it meant that their gods turned out to be less powerful than the gods of the victors. After battle, the defeated gods were to accept and submit, peacefully or forcefully, to the superiority of the triumphant gods and honor them. A new pantheon in the city, made up of the old local deities as well as the new foreign gods, represented the most diplomatic way for a nation to survive a military defeat. The coexistence of several gods was normal at that time.

They found it incomprehensible that the Jews would not tolerate the coexistence of their God with other gods. “What is wrong with placing a statue of my god with your God in His sanctuary?” they asked. No other pagan god demanded exclusivity! Why, then, should they accept that the Jews behave in this bizarre way? The refusal of the Jews to accept other gods was interpreted as a gesture of arrogance. This generated hatred, resentment, and accusations that the Jews felt superior to all those with different beliefs.

The Greeks, like the Romans a few centuries later, found it impossible to understand that the Jews believed in one invisible God. The conventional wisdom of the time dictated that what cannot be seen does not exist. Nor could they conceive that the Jews unquestionably obeyed their God and that His Law superseded the laws of human Kings and Emperors. 


PROTECTOR OF THE JEWS
Exempting them from honoring his gods was not the only boon Alexander the Great bestowed upon the Jews. He was fascinated with Judaism and eventually became the protector of the Jews in his Empire. Like every emperor, Alexander demanded that each people send men to serve in his armies. The Jews, who were also recruited, formed their own battalion to serve in the ranks of the Greek army. Alexander ordered that the Jewish soldiers be allowed to practice their religion in terms of their food (Kashrut) and the observance of their Sabbath. A letter was found where Alexander requests a special, Kosher oil be delivered to Jewish soldiers in Antioquia; since they could not consume common oil which was considered impure (Bickerman). Historians also located records showing how Alexander the Great instructed his generals to excuse Jewish soldiers from participating in the construction of a pagan temple in Babylon.
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אומרים שחכמי יון היו הכי קרובים לחכמי ישראל בכמות הידע העולמי Egyptians used black magic, demons. Moses had the divine wisdom. Holy, much different
אנשי הסנהדרין למדו כישופים כדי לדעת לשפוט בצדק

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"A system of morality which is based on relative emotional values is a mere illusion, a thoroughly vulgar conception which has nothing sound in it and nothing true." #Quote Socrates (Classical Greek Philosopher)









_________________ רבי אברהם ביבאגו *** רבי אברהם ביבאגו, בעל ספר "דרך אמונה", חי בספרד בדור שלפני הגירוש. כדרכם של חכמי ספרד בימי הביניים, הוא ביאר דרשות חז"ל על פי הפילוסופיה הכללית, ובפרט לפי עקרונותיה של הפילוסופיה הסכולסטית, אך לא כצורתה המקורית אלא אחרי מיזוגה עם תורת הקבלה, מה שהוא תוצאה של הסימפתיה אל תורת הקבלה החודרת בחוגים הפילוסופיים, המהוה כמין פיוס בין שני הזרמים שנלחמו אחד בשני בספרד עד הדור ההוא. בספרו, רבי אברהם ביבאגו דן באורך הגלויות השונות: 210 שנים לגלות מצרים, 70 שנה לגלות בבל, ושנים רבות לגלות אדום, מחרבן בית שני וחרבן המדינה עד הקמת מדינת ישראל. היום אנו יודעים שמדובר ב-1880 שנה. שם הוא מבאר שגלות האומה מקבילה לגלות השכל ("השכל גולה בין החושים" - פתגם פילוסופי). השכל העליון, הלוא הוא הצורה הישראלית, כלומר הנבואה. אף על פי שהנבואה מיוחדת לעם ישראל, יש לה מתחרים הפזורים בתרבויות השונות, שטוענים גם הם לכתר של הובלת רוח האדם, ומגמת הגלויות הינה להפגיש את עם ישראל עם אותם מתחרים. המתחרה הראשון בשכל הינו החוש, שהיה יסודם של כל התרבויות האפריקאיות, וקיבלה את ביטויה היותר מפותח במצרים העתיקה, דרך תורת הכישוף למשל, הבנויה על מודעות מרובה לעולם המוחש. לקח לעם ישראל 210 שנים עד שמשה רבנו מתחיל את עבודתו בתוך כביכול מכשף ועושה את אותם הלהטוטים שמסוגלים להם חרטומי מצרים, והנה, כשמגיע השלב של "אצבע א-להים היא" מתברר ההבדל שבין הופעת השכינה לבין כישופי החרטומים, ואפשר לצאת ממצרים. בגלות בבל הופיע מתחרה אחר, הדמיון, דרך תורת החלומות, שמות המלאכים והאסטרולוגיה. לצורך הבירור, מופיעים בעם ישראל אנשים כדניאל איש חמודות, המסוגלים לפתור חלומות שחכמי בבל לא הצליחו לפענח. מתחרה זה חלוש יותר מן הקודם, ולכן ניתן לצאת מבבל אחרי 70 שנה בלבד. מה שאין כן בנוגע לגלות אדום, בה עם ישראל מתמודד עם מתחרה הרבה יותר רציני, הפילוסופיה, כלשון רבי אברהם ביבאגו: החוש התבוני, כלומר השכל הנראה כמו תכונה עצמאית, שבאמת אינו אלא חוש בלבד. לקח לאומה זמן רב עד שהתברר שכל הפילוסופיה, על אף מופשטותה, אינה מתחילה אלא בחוש. מי שגילה רז זה הלוא הוא עמנואל קאנט, שהיה הראשון שהסביר שכל הכרה מופשטת מקורה בחושים, ואם כן הינה סובייקטיבית. מכאן ואילך, התחילה להתפשט המחשבה לשוב אל ארץ ישראל. תחילה על ידי נפוליאון, דורשי ציון, חובבי ציון ולבסוף על ידי הציונות המדינית שהביאה להקמת המדינה. במעמקי הגלות בספרד הרחוקה, ישנו חכם מישראל שכבר צופה את גורם גלותנו, שהוא בירור ההבדל שבין הפילוסופיה לבין נבואה, שאז יהיה זה הזמן לשוב לציון ולחדש בה את התרבות הנבואית. The writings of R' Avraham Bibago ztz"l [one generation prior inquisition]: (1) "Derekh Emunah" (The Path of Faith), his chief work, written toward the close of his life, and printed in 1521 at Constantinople. Like all his writings, it has, according to Steinschneider, not received the full recognition it deserves. It is, as the title suggests, a presentation and, at the same time, a defense of the Jewish religion as leading man to the highest knowledge of God and to eternal happiness. It is divided into three treatises, which are subdivided into divisions or parts (called "gates") and chapters. The first treatise deals with: (gate 1) the doings of God; (gate 2) His knowledge; and (gate 3) His providence. The second treatise deals with: (gate 1) the intellect; (gate 2) its nature and object; (gate 3) man's highest object; (gate 4) the blending of faith and knowledge—which topic is but slightly touched; (gate 5) the problem of matter and sin; (gate 6) the question whether Moses sinned; and (gate 7) the true faith. The third treatise deals with: (gate 1) the fundamentals of faith; (gate 2) miracles; (gate 3) creation of the world; (gate 4) ethics; and (gate 5) the special articles of faith. In the fifth part he warmly defends the creed of Maimonides against his antagonists; and his arguments were subsequently literally reproduced by Abravanel in his "Rosh Amanah." In this work, in which many Biblical and rabbinical passages are explained, he takes cognizance of Christian and Mohammedan theology. He quotes Greek philosophers like Plato, Aristotle, and Pythagoras; also Euclid and Ptolemeus, Galen and Themistius, as well as Arabic thinkers like Averroes, Avicenna, Alfarabi, and Gazzali, and even the fable-book "Kalila we-Dimna." Of Christian writers he quotes Eusebius; and of Jewish writers often not only Maimonides, Naḥmanides, and other philosophers, but also cabalistic works like the "Bahir," the "Zohar," "Sefer Yeẓirah," and the "Hekalot." He indorses a saying of a sage that "Reason and Religion are the world's two luminaries"; and he strongly opposes prayers "addressed to angels or to the departed, a practise customary among the Christians." Isaac Arama, Bibago's contemporary, used the book freely. Joseph Solomon del Medigo, the well-known physician and writer, speaks with warm praise of the work, though be complains that the Cabala had crept into it. But the fact must be taken into consideration that, as Steinschneider says, "the cabalists at the close of the thirteenth century had made philosophy the handmaid of the Cabala, and this caused the philosophers on their part to take into consideration the writings and the ideas of the Cabala that had grown into prominence." It is true that Jacob ibn Ḥabib, in his "'En Ya'aḳob" at the close of Berakot, censures Bibago for putting constructions upon the Biblical texts that they could not bear; nevertheless he praises "the beauty of these interpretations, which insinuate themselves into our hearts." Other Works. (2) "Eẓ Ḥayyim" (Tree of Life) deals with creation, and has for its object the refutation of the arguments advanced by Aristotle, Averroes, and others in favor of the eternity of the world. The author quotes this treatise three times in the "Derek Emunah" and gives a fair insight into it. (3) A homily on Gen. v. 29, "Zeh Yenaḥamenu," published at Salonica in 1522, treats also of creation and the Sabbath; but is not, as is stated by Michael ("Or ha-Ḥayyim"), part of "Eẓ Ḥayyim" (see Steinschneider, "Monatsschrift," 1883, p. 95). (4) From quotations in the "Derek Emunah" it appears that Bibago wrote a work under the title of "Maḥazeh Shaddai," treating of the belief in resurrection. (5) A work on sacrifice as means of communion with God. (6) A refutation of the objections raised by Naḥmanides against Maimonides. (7) "Ma'amar 'al Ribbui ha-Ẓurot," a treatise on "The Plurality of Forms, Particularly in Man"—Paris manuscript 1004, though without his name. (8) Two philosophical letters to Moses Arondi. (9) A compendium of therapeutics after Galen; besides a number of philosophical works in the form of commentaries to Averroes. (10) A commentary on Averroes' work on logic, "Demonstration" (), written at Huesca in 1446, exists in manuscript, Vatican and Paris. In this work Bibago defends Averroes against Levi ben Gerson. (11) A commentary on Averroes' "Physics," referred to in (12) a commentary on Averroes' "Metaphysics"—still extant in manuscript at Munich. Encourages Philosophical Study. In the introduction he deplores the lack of philosophical research among his coreligionists, who are unable to defend their faith against Christian scholars that study philosophy and science in their schools; and in view of this deficiency he undertook the explanation of Aristotelian metaphysics, however much opposed it was to the pure and sacred ancestral faith. This work shows familiarity not only with all Arabic philosophers, but also with Boethius, with the works of Duns Scotus and Occam, known to him probably through the translation of Elijah Habillo, and with Nicholas Bonettus, a Spanish monk who lived in 1486. Without originality of thought, Bibago nevertheless represents, says Steinschneider, "that class of learned and productive writers which Spanish Judaism produced at the close of a brilliant epoch."

2 comments:

  1. The alleged letter from Aristotle to Alexander is apocryphal. Apart from the improbability of its content, the fact is that by the time Aristotle lay dying (as he mentions in his supposed letter) Alexander had already been dead for several months.

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  2. R' Avraham Azulai wrote in Hesed L'Avraham: that there are 15 types of Menorah's each is on a higher level...
    The highest or most honorable material is 1) Gold, 2) Silver, 3) Gold Copper, 4) Red Copper, 5) Brass, 6) Stainless Steel, 7) Lead, 8) Stone, 9) Glass, 10) Wood, 11) Painted Clay, 12) Unfinished Clay, 13) Pomegranate Shells, 14) Nut Shells, 15) Alon Tree Bark

    וכתב רבנו אברהם אזולאי ז״ל בספרו חסד לאברהם כי יש 15 מדריגות בסוגי החנוכיות , ודרגה 1 זו מזהב , דרגה 2 כסף ,
    3 נחושת בצבע זהב , 4 נחושת בצבע אדום , 5 ברזל , 6 בדיל הוא נירוסטה , 7 עופרת , 8 אבן , 9 זכוכית , 10 עץ , 11 חרס מצופה ,
    12 חרס חדש לא מצופה , 13 קליפת רימון , 14 קליפת אגוז , 15 קליפת עץ אלון. עד כאן מעין ב, נהר נ״ח .
    אשריהם ישראל האוהבים את התורה והמצוות , שישו ושמחו בימי החנוכה אתם ובניכם וכל הנלוים אליכם

    מספר המכבים שנלחמו ביונים כנזכר במדרשים:
    יש אומרים 12 איש ויש גירסה 17 איש בניהם של מתתיהו ושל יוחנן הכהנים.
    ואחר כך הצטרפו כשלשת אלפים מישראל.
    The number of Macabees that fought off the Syrian-Greeks:
    (the sons of Matityahu & Yohanan) were between 12 and 17. Afterwards around 3,000 joined in.

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